# My story with Haskell. Thus far Functional Paradigm is the Queen of Programming Paradigms, and Haskell is the Queen of Functional Languages

• Hypothetical Gauss in the 21st Century

## Chapter 1. Haskell knocks the door

In my final year at college, I was starting to pump out code and I was in search for a tool to help me manage all those terminal instances. A friend suggested xmonad, a tiling window manager. I played around with it for a week or so, but I eventually let it go. While tinkering with xmonad, I discovered it was one of the more popular Haskell program out there. I had not heard of Haskell before. Now, I had.

## Chapter 2. Infatuation

Haskell introduced me to functional programming, and I got hooked on to it. I had casually seen Lisp before, but code written in Lisp has that unfortunate overload of (((round) brackets)), and I had immediately taken my eyes off it. Haskell has a beautiful syntax. If you have never seen Haskell before, look at the code below. The program shown computes the factors of a given number. This might not be the most efficient implementation, but heck, just look at it.

factors :: Integer -> [Integer]
factors n = temp n [2..(n-1)]
where
temp 1 xs = []
temp _ [] = []
temp k (x:xs) = if (mod k x == 0)
then x : temp (k div x) (x:xs)
else temp k xs

main = do
print \$ factors 252


This would print [2,2,3,3,7] on the screen. For reference, the Python equivalent (in the functional paradigm) for this code looks like this

def factors(n):

def temp(k, x_xs):
if (k == 1):
return []
elif not x_xs:
return []
else:
x = x_xs
if (k % x == 0):
return ([x] + temp(k/x, x_xs))
else:
return (temp(k, x_xs[1:]))

return temp(n, [i for i in range(2, n-1)])

if __name__ == "__main__":
print factors(252)


You might like Python just as I do, but I know you agree with me: functional code in Python looks rather ugly.

I am fond of mathematics & Haskell is Oh, so Mathematical!. Say we want to find solutions to the Linear Diophantine Equation 5*x + 7*y = 100 where x and y are positive integers. For Haskell, this is a trivial coin toss.

main = print [(x,y) | x <- [1..100], y <- [1..100], 5*x + 7*y == 100]


Everything in Haskell was so different, I felt I was learning programming for the first time ever! For example, here is a glimpse of Haskell’s type system.

class Complex:

def __init__(x, y):
assert isinstance(x, float)
assert isinstance(y, float)
self.x = x
self.y = y

c = Complex(0, 0)
c.x = self.x + other.x
c.y = self.y + other.y
return c


is equivalent to

data Complex = Complex {x :: Double, y :: Double} deriving(Num)

instance Num (Complex) where
(+) (Complex x1 y1) (Complex x2 y2) = Complex (x1+x2) (y1+y2)


This is similar to saying that Complex is a subclass of Num & that + is a virtual function of the Num class.

## Chapter 3. Interlude

Before Haskell entered my life, I had just begun to gain some confidence over my programming skills. Haskell told me how ignorant I was. Haskell lives in a parallel universe & its not just about functional programming. Other languages such as Lisp and ML are functional but are much more sobre than Haskell. Haskell, in its untiring aim to be a pure functional language is much more difficult to comprehend.

After a few chapters of Learn you a Haskell (which btw, is a fantastic resource to learn Haskell), I met functors, applicative functors & monads. I was bowled. More so because the infinite web tutorials on monads indicated that monads must be somewhat difficult. I had to take a break from Haskell. I was probably not prepared yet to see monads in its eyes.

## Chapter 4. Reunion

Fast forward an year. At work, my primary language was Python. By now, iterators, decorators, generators were in my Python toolbox. I had seen elements of functional & lazy programming in Python by now. Occasionally, I started to come across blog posts which talked about itertools & how Haskell had influenced Python. Nostalgia. I was back on Haskell in my after office hours.

## Chapter 5. Love

That’s today. Here I am, madly in love with this language. Having attempted (and partially failed) to build complex software systems in C++ and Python, I can now appreciate Haskell’s purity. I had previously written on the importance of mathematics in programming; for complicated programs, function composition seems to be the way to write programs!